Bandar Abbas is situated in the north of Hormuz strait. It is 27316 square meters wide. North of the city is Hajiabad, East of the city are Minab and Roodan, west of the city is Bandar Lengeh, and from the south, the city extends to Qeshm Island and the Persian Gulf.
Bandar Abbas is the capital city of Hormozgan province on the southern coast of Iran. Situated on the Persian Gulf coast, Bandar Abbas is approximately 45 square kilometers wide with an altitude of 10 meters (32 feet) above sea level. Nearest city to Bandar Abbas is Qeshm city (the capital of Qeshm Island) which is 28 kilometers wide. The distance between Bandar Abbas and Tehran is 1333 kilometers.
Bandar Abbas has a hot and humid climate. The summer lasts for almost nine months. Some monuments, mosques and ancient tombs are as following:
1. Kolah Farangi House: it was built in 1110 AH by the Dutch, it was a castle with 16 towers and 3 gates and was home to Customs Office of Bandar Abbas.
2. Galerdari Bathroom: this bathroom is made of five big and small domes and is also known as Shah Abbas Bathroom.
3. Hindu Temple: The Hindu Temple was built in 1310 by the Hindus dwelling in Bandar Abbas, it has a Hindu-style architecture and was constructed by Dutch architects and today is visited as a historic museum. This temple is located in the city center (Imam Khomeini Avenue).
4. Nasseri Mosque: it was built in 1304 AH.
5. Sahrabaghi Mosque: it was built in 1310 AH.
6. Galledari Mosque: its construction dates back to 1296 AH.
7. Jamme Mosque: it was built in 1175 AH.
8. Imamzadeh Seyyed Mozaffar: this mausoleum is one on the most prominent places in Bandar Abbas and is located on Imam Khomeini Boulvard.
9. Traditional Ponds: these ponds dating back to Safavid, are situated in Bandar Abbas.
Hormozgan province is devided into two parts geographically:
1. The mountainous areas that set up an important part of northern area of Hormuz strait and also the northern and eastern part of Minab(Bashagard). The mountains of Hormozagan province are in fact the continuation of Zagros Mount ranges which are gradually shortened from the north to the south and changed to chalky and salty hills.
The high mountains in Hormozgan province are Farghan Mount in the north of Bandar Abbas, which is 3267 meters high, Shab Mount in the east of Bandar Lengeh which is 2681 meters high, Geno Mount in the north of Bandar Abbas which is 2447 meters high and also Bashagard Mount in the north of Minab.
2. The vast plain that extends along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea beaches.
The Persian Gulf
Located in the south of Iran, the Persian Gulf is 240,000 square kilometers wide and its length from Hormuz Strait to Arvanrood is approximately 1259 kilometers. Its narrowest part is 185 kilometers and the longest part is 350 kilometers. The deepest part of it, is seated 15 kilometers away from the southern Greater Tunb which is 93 meters deep. The Persian Gulf is one of the most strategic areas in the world due to possessing enormous oil resources, food resources and pearl hunting.
Hormuz Strait which is 55 kilometers wide and 128 meters deep, provides a close one-thousand sea passage on the south to the world’s open ocean passage via the Oman Sea and therefore it is geographically important. Since Hormozgan province - in particular Bandar Abbas, Kish, Qeshm and Lengeh- is situated on the Persian Gulf coast and in the vicinity of Hormuz Strait, it possesses economic, political, cultural, and social significance and consequently has been the center of colonialists’ attention.
Today, Hormuz Strait is regarded as Iran’s economic checkpoint.
Nearly all regions in Hormozgan province have two seasons, long hot summers and short mild winters. The hot climate comes with a nine-month humidity which reaches its climax in Tir and Mordad (July & August), and the mild three-month season which starts in the early Azar (December) and lasts until Esfand(March).
At the 1379 census, the population of Hormozgan province was more than 1198107 of which 681308 live in the rural areas and 516799 live in the city.
Hormozgan inhabitants are devided into two groups racially:
The whites that include Aryan immigrants, Arabs and job-seeking immigrants; and the blacks belonging to the natives and black immigrants who come from Africa and Saudi Arabia coasts. The language of most of the people is derived from Persian known as Bandari. There are some English, Arabic and Baloochi terms in this dialect.
In some regions people speak Arabic and also speak local dialects. Islam is the main religion of most people and they are either Shia or Sunni.
In the past, the Persian Gulf has been the greatest navy base of Achaemenids and large islands such as Qeshm, Larak, Hengam, Kish and Hormuzh have been the magnificent power of navy in that era. In a short time, some of the islands came under the authority of Greeks and they were used as a base to occupy India.
Due to the downfall of Part dynasty and the Sasanid’s takeover, large groups of this dynasty moved toward Iranian navy in the Persian Gulf and established on the coasts of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. In the late 7th century AH, Kharbes, Ghalat, Suza, Direstan, Laft and Qeshm flourished dramatically. In the 8th century, the troops of Amir Teimoor attacked the coasts of old Hormuz, occupied and fired its castles.
The first colonialists from 908 AH led by Vasco da Gama disembarked in the Persian Gulf ports. In 1507 AD, a group of Portuguese commanded by Albert Kurk entered the Persian Gulf and fomented the Persian Gulf anarchy as Allah Verdi Kahn was delegated on behalf of Shah Abbas to expel the Portuguese. In 922 AH, the Portuguese entered the Persian Gulf with a large troop and ruled over Bandar Gamberoon along with Hormuz island and all the towns in Bandar Abbas from Jask to Lengeh.
In 1032 AH, Shah Abbas under the command of Imam Gholi Khan - the governor of Fars- freed the occupied cities including Hormuz, Kong, Lengeh and Bandar Gamberoon formerly conqured by the Portuguese. Slowly Dutches and British came to Hormozgan, established firms and buildings and started to compete in trade and business.
France also plundered a large amount of financial resource by establishing a consulate in Bandar Abbas led by General Gordon. Other countries including Belgium, Russia and Spain also possessed special previlage.